Therefore, you are interested in participating in a grunion run. There are several key factors that necessitate your awareness prior to departure. Firstly, are you familiar with the concept of grunions?
In order to promote the conservation of grunion populations, it is more advantageous to engage in observation and learning activities rather than pursuing hunting and collection practices.
The feeding habits of grunion remain poorly understood. These organisms lack dentition and subsist on minute organisms, such as plankton.
Within the confines of a controlled laboratory environment, the grunion species demonstrates a dietary preference for consuming live brine shrimp.
What Does a Grunion Look Like?
These piscine organisms exhibit diminutive proportions, possessing a slender physique, characterized by bluish-green dorsal regions and silvery lateral surfaces and ventral regions.
The snouts of the animals in question exhibit a rounded shape that lacks sharpness and possesses a smooth texture.
Silversides exhibit a distinguishing characteristic from true smelts belonging to the family Osmeridae, namely the absence of the adipose fin resembling that of trout.
Juvenile grunions exhibit a notable growth rate, achieving a length of approximately five inches within their first year of development, signifying their readiness for the spawning process.
Adult fish typically exhibit a size variation ranging from 6 to 7 inches (15 to 18 cm), with the largest recorded size being 8.5 inches (220 mm) (San Diego, CA., 05-11-05).
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The mean body lengths for males and females are 4.5 and 5 inches (11 and 13 cm), respectively, after one year. After two years, the mean body lengths increase to 5.5 and 5.8 inches (14 and 15 cm).
Finally, at the end of three years, the mean body lengths reach 5.9 and 6.3 inches (15 and 16 cm) for males and females, respectively.
The typical lifespan of the grunion species ranges from three to four years, with occasional instances of individuals surviving up to five years.
The growth rate of the organism decelerates after its initial spawning event and ceases entirely during the period of reproduction.
As a result, adult fish experience growth exclusively during the autumn and winter seasons. The variation in growth rate results in the formation of annuli on the scales, which have been utilized for age determination.
How Do I Describe the Behaviour of the Grunion?
The grunion species is currently facing a significant challenge, which is widely regarded as the most crucial issue: the decrease in spawning habitat caused by beach erosion, harbour construction, and pollution.
The eggs have been observed to be preyed upon by various organisms, including an isopod, two species of flies, sandworms, and a beetle.
Certain avian species, namely egrets and herons, engage in predation upon grunion during their terrestrial spawning phase.
During a grunion run, it has been observed that various organisms, including seagulls, sea lions, and larger fish like sand sharks, engage in feeding activities involving grunion.
In spite of regional aggregations, the grunion species does not exhibit a high level of abundance.
Although the exact population size remains uncertain, existing research consistently indicates that there is a limited resource that is being sustainably managed at the current rate of harvest, in accordance with prevailing regulations.
How Do I Describe Reproduction in the Grunions?
The California grunion engages in spawning activities along coastal beaches, typically occurring within a range of two to six nights following both the full and new moon phases.
This behaviour commences shortly after the occurrence of high tide and persists for a duration of several hours.
When a wave crashes onto the shoreline, the grunion species exhibits the behaviour of swimming towards the highest point on the beach slope.
The female individual assumes a curved posture, maintaining an elevated head position, as she proceeds to remove the partially fluid sand using her tail.
After noticing that her tail is slowly sinking, the female specimen twists and uses her tail as a digging tool to go farther into the water until her pectoral fins are completely out of sight.
As the female lays her eggs around four inches (10 cm) below the surface, up to eight males will attempt to mate with her by surrounding her and releasing their milt.
Upon hatching, the male individuals promptly withdraw in the direction of the marine environment.
The seminal fluid descends along the female’s reproductive tract until it reaches the ova, subsequently initiating the process of fertilization.
The female disentangles herself and retreats back into the ocean with the subsequent wave.
The entire occurrence can transpire within a duration of 30 seconds, however, certain fish persist on the shoreline for multiple minutes.
The spawning period typically spans from March to August, occasionally extending into February and September. Nevertheless, the period of peak spawning occurs between late March and early June.
Upon reaching maturity, an individual has the capacity to engage in spawning events that occur at approximately 15-day intervals.
The majority of female individuals engage in spawning approximately six times within a given reproductive season.
The number of maturing ova to be deposited during a single spawning event varied between approximately 1,600 and 3,600, with the larger females exhibiting a higher egg production capacity.
In the course of a complete reproductive cycle, a female has the capacity to deposit up to 18,000 eggs.
The seminal fluid derived from the male organism has the potential to encompass a substantial quantity of approximately one million individual sperm cells.
Male individuals have the ability to engage in multiple reproductive events during each reproductive migration.
The eggs are incubated at a depth of a few inches within the sand, positioned above the level of subsequent waves.
The organisms are not fully submerged in seawater; rather, they maintain moisture through the residual water present in the sand.
During the incubation period, these organisms are susceptible to predation by avian species inhabiting the shoreline as well as invertebrates residing in sandy environments.
Under typical circumstances, the opportunity for hatching is not available until the subsequent occurrence of a sufficiently high tide series, which may take place 10 or more days later.
The incubation period and hatching of grunion eggs may be prolonged by an additional four weeks if they are not exposed to tides subsequent to the initial hatching period.
The majority of the eggs are expected to undergo hatching within a span of 10 days, given the presence of seawater and the stimulation caused by the turbulent motion of the advancing waves.
The hatching process is initiated by the mechanical stimulation caused by the waves in the environment.
The swift speed at which hatching takes place, completing in under one minute, suggests that it is unlikely to be an enzymatic process involving the softening of the chorion, as observed in certain other fish species.
How Do I Describe the Grunion Run?
Spawning takes place over a span of three to four consecutive nights, commencing on the nights of the full moons and new moons.
This reproductive activity is triggered by high tides and persists for several hours. The period of peak spawning occurs between late March and early June.
In order to engage in fishing activities in California during the open season, individuals who are 16 years of age or older are obligated to possess a valid fishing license.
The open season typically spans from the months of March to July, with the possibility of extending into August and occasionally early September.
The capture of grunion is limited to manual methods exclusively. It is prohibited to excavate any pits on the beach with the intention of trapping individuals within them.
This year, a daily quota of 30 fish has been imposed. However, it is advised to only harvest fish that will be utilized. The following recommendations outline methods for preparing grunion for culinary purposes.
Read also: What are the Most Common Fishes Species?
Individuals who are at least sixteen years of age or older are required to possess a valid sport fishing license issued by the state of California, which must include the ocean enhancement stamp, in order to engage in the activity of the grunion run.
A license is not required for the act of observing a grunion run; however, should one intend to engage with the fish in any capacity, even without the intention of retaining any fish, a license becomes necessary.
A reliable method for determining recent spawning occurrences at beaches is to contact the state and county beach lifeguards, as they possess valuable information regarding such events. Thanks for reading!